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Illegal oil a 'hot' business

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发表于 2010-3-22 23:47 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

Methods of detection need to be improved

WUHAN - With the inefficiency of current techniques for detecting and identifying the use of illegal cooking oil in China, there is an urgent need to improve kitchen waste recycling procedures to prevent the continued use of such oil in food production, a leading food expert has said.


He Dongping, of Wuhan Polytechnic University, who is leading a study on waste oil.
He Dongping, a professor of food science engineering at Wuhan Polytechnic University (WHPU), revealed last Thursday that one in every 10 meals in the country might have been cooked with dirty oil based on an ongoing study.

The revelation has raised widespread alarm. The State Food and Drug Administration on Thursday issued an emergency notice to restaurants nationwide, warning them against recycling oil.

In an interview with China Daily over the weekend, He said his research team at WHPU is working on developing a method for detecting and identifying illegal cooking oil, which is a difficult task.

"It's hard to tell the difference between illegal cooking oil and its ordinary counterparts just by looking and smelling," said He.

In addition to an effective method of detection having yet to be found, the difficulty is compounded once the illegal oil has been blended into ordinary ones.

The "illegal cooking oil" is usually made from discarded kitchen waste that has been refined. Although it looks clean and clear, it actually contains toxic substances, including "aflatoxin", which can cause cancer.

"The country's underground oil refining businesses have grown pretty mature. There is a whole set of procedures for producing illegal cooking oil," He explained.

In the current situation, preventing of the use of illegal cooking oil should start at its source, kitchen waste, He said.

"The first step is to ensure an official, standardized collection of kitchen waste," he recommended.

In the interim, the use of illegal cooking oil continues to be sustained by its high profitability.

An investigation in Wuhan showed few restaurants are willing to hire the city's sanitation workers for kitchen waste collection.

The owner of a restaurant in the Wuchang district of Wuhan, capital of Central China's Hubei province, last Friday told China Daily he serves at least 50 tables a day, which produces two big barrels of kitchen waste.

According to the restaurateur, the waste could be collected and recycled by sanitation workers, but an official with the Wuhan urban management bureau told China Daily that sanitation workers never collect waste from restaurants.

"The restaurants have to pay a certain fee if they hire the city's sanitation workers, whereas selling kitchen waste to private parties can make up to 10,000 yuan ($1,500) every year," Zeng Wei, director of the Wuhan Airui Biodiesel Company, told Xinhua News Agency on Saturday.

According to Zeng, many restaurants contract out their kitchen waste collection to private parties, a stable set-up in which there is no room for the entrance of an outside party.

Under the arrangement, a large restaurant is capable of making 2 million yuan per year just by selling its kitchen waste, Xinhua reported.

As a country with a prosperous restaurant business, the amount of kitchen waste produced on a daily basis in China is quite large, forming 40 percent of a city's total waste, He told China Daily.

He said Chinese cities fall into five categories for the amount of kitchen waste they produce. First level cities (Beijing and Shanghai) produce 1,000 to 1,500 tons of waste per day; second level cities (such as Wuhan) produce 500 to 1,000 tons; third level cities (of which Qingdao and Ningbo are examples) produce 200 to 500 tons; fourth level cities (like Xiangfan in Hubei) produce 100 to 200 tons; and fifth level cities (which are primarily at the county level) produce less than 100 tons, according to He.

Refining 1 ton of the waste would produce 130 kg of illegal cooking oil. With its price being half that of ordinary cooking oil, a profit of 1.5 to 2 billion yuan is produced in the entire illegal cooking oil business in the country every year, He said.

"The profit margin is almost 200 percent. It's easy to understand why the business is so hot."

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-3-22 23:49 | 显示全部楼层
Million tons of swill-cooked oil back on tableZuo Likun | Fri Mar 19 2010



Veteran food professor says "about one in ten meals" in the China's restaurants is cooked with dirty oil.
China, March 19, 2010
Read this before you eat at Chinese restaurants next time.
Every year, two to three million tons of swill-cooked dirty oil, soaked with poisonous carcinogens have sneaked back to our dining tables through an underground muck-money network so rampant that it's an open secret in the industry, the China Youth Daily reported Wednesday.
A deadly toxin found in swill-oil is aflatoxin, which is among the most carcinogenic substances ever known and is 100 times more poisonous than the forbidding white arsenic.
The stomach-turning news report quoted a veteran food professor as saying "about one in ten meals" at the country's restaurants is cooked with such dirty oil, a calculation based on China's annual oil consumption of 22.5 million tons.
"You must have eaten the swill oil as well," asserted He Dongping, a professor on oil and toxin with central China's Wuhan Polytechnic University, and also a leading specialist with China's Food and Oil Standardization Administration, who has spent over seven years on an up-hill task -- how to detect and stop the despicable practice.
According to an undercover investigation in Wuhan by nine senior students of professor He, the conspiracy starts at night when swill-fishers hollow out the stinking hogwash from urban sewages, followed by filtrating, heating, subsiding, dividing, and then in the morning comes out the clear-looking "edible" oil for unwitting customers.
Each fisher could fetch up to four barrels at a time, nearly 300 yuan ($44) easy money every night or over 10,000 yuan ($1,465) a month, a lucrative deal too tempting to resist, especially so when the business was in a trouble-free "anarchy" state, said professor He.
The crux of the matter, in He's opinion, has to do with government management rather than detector gadgets, because without lab equipment, the only reliable counter measure for a common customer so far is special test paper, still a far cry from reality, the professor admitted.
"It might take about 10 years before China could get rid of the swill-oil completely," he said.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-3-22 23:55 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 foodpal 于 2010-3-22 23:58 编辑

swill oil.jpg Old oil used in '1 in 10 meals'

Immediately after a leading food expert revealed that one in every 10 meals in the country may be cooked with dirty oil, the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) on Thursday issued an emergency notice to restaurants nationwide, warning them against recycling oil.

Food service providers will be punished if they use illegal cooking oil or oil of an unknown origin. In severe cases, their licenses could be revoked, the notice said.

He Dongping, a food science professor at the Wuhan Polytechnic University (WHPU), told the China Youth Daily on Thursday that people in China consume "about 2 to 3 million tons" of illegal cooking oil every year.

"And the Chinese people's annual oil consumption is about 22.5 million tons, which means a ratio of 1:10," he told the newspaper.

The "illegal cooking oil" is usually made from discarded kitchen waste that has been refined, the report said, adding that the oil, which contains a highly toxic and carcinogenic substance called "aflatoxin", can cause cancer.

According to He's research; the illegal cooking oil business is extremely profitable.

"One ton of cooking oil made from kitchen waste costs only 300 yuan ($44). A barrel of oil makes a profit of 70 to 80 yuan. On average, one person collects four barrels. Even if the oil is sold at half the price of ordinary oil, you could make over 10,000 yuan a month. Even a chore man in the business gets a monthly wage of 2,500 yuan," He told the newspaper.

Questions:

1. Which agency issued a warning to restaurants not to use illegal cooking oil?

2. How much illegal cooking oil is consumed in China every year, according to researchers?

3. What is the highly toxic substance found in illegal cooking oil made from discarded kitchen waste that has been refined?

Answers:

1. The State Food and Drug Administration.

2. About 2 million to 3 million tons of illegal cooking oil is consumed every year, according to researchers’ estimates.

3. Aflatoxin, which can cause cancer.

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-3-23 00:04 | 显示全部楼层
Illegal Cooking Oil Made from Kitchen Waste
Authorities have uncovered two large workshops that were turning discarded kitchen waste into cooking oil -- a practice that is illegal and carries potential health risks.

One of the sites, in Dongguan of Guangdong Province, had already been punished in February this year for illegally producing cooking oil.

It had re-registered as a bio-energy technology company and was selling more than 10 tons of such oil a day, China Central Television reported.

A second site, in Shenzhen, was found with more than 32 tons of illegal oil.

Wu Shengbin, an official with the market supervision and management bureau of Shenzhen, said the oil is OK for industrial use, but not for cooking.

Kitchen waste contains large amounts of sewage, garbage and detergent, said Huang Fenghong, director of the Processing Center of the Oil Crops Research Institute under the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Refining at illegal workshops does not sufficiently reduce the bacteria and hazardous substances. Long-term intake of the oil may lead to cancer and other diseases.

The oil, which appears the same as normal cooking oil after purification, has been used by canteens at some construction sites, factories and cheap restaurants in Dongguan.

A worker at a construction site canteen said the slop oil costs only 4 yuan (59 cents) per kg compared with 20 yuan per kg for peanut oil. His canteen uses more than 30 kg of oil a day, which means a savings of nearly 500 yuan.

Cooking oil as cheap as 2 yuan per kg and labeled as palm oil was found at a farmers' market in Dongguan.

The problem is difficult to eradicate because the workshops are scattered and the sector is supervised by different government agencies without an effective coordination, Huang said.

The lack of a standard for cooking oil also makes it hard to single out slop oil from normal cooking oil, said a worker with the industry and commerce administration of Dongguan.

In Guangzhou, city authorities are formulating the regulation of kitchen waste and plan to build a slop processing center. In Shenzhen, the market supervision and management bureau was established in September. It combines the roles of three previous departments and aims to improve food safety and market supervision.

Guangdong is not alone in the fight against slop oil. About 17 tons of such oil was found every day during a campaign this January in Changsha, Hunan Province. Ten tons were discovered at a site in Chongqing Municipality in November last year.

China produces more than 60 million tons of kitchen waste every year, according to statistics from the department of environmental science and engineering of Tsinghua University.

About 14.1 million tons of edible oil was sold in China in 2006 and up to 1.5 million tons of slop oil was used for cooking every year, reported Science and Technology Daily early this year.

(China Daily November 17, 2009)
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-3-23 00:09 | 显示全部楼层
Cooking oil crackdown China vows to punish makers of illegal oil that may cause cancer
05:55 AM Mar 20, 2010

BEIJING - China's food safety watchdog has ordered inspections of cooking oil nationwide amid reports that up to one-tenth of Chinese supplies were illegally made and contained cancer-causing agents.

The State Food and Drug Administration authorised the inspections of all food service providers and vowed to punish manufacturers producing "drainage oil" which is cooking oil refined from discarded kitchen waste.

"If food service providers are found to be using cooking oil from an unclear source, or if they have bought 'drainage oil', their operations will be immediately halted and they will be dealt with in accordance with the law," said the order posted on the administration's website.

The China Daily said as much as one-tenth of cooking oil used in China could be made from recycled kitchen or restaurant waste oil, which contains a highly toxic, carcinogenic substance called "aflatoxin".

"People in China consume about 2 to 3 million tonnes of illegal cooking oil every year," the China Youth Daily cited Mr He Dongping, a food science expert at the Wuhan Polytechnic University, as saying.

China annually consumes about 22.5 million tons of cooking oil, he added.

According to Mr He, the illegal cooking oil business is extremely profitable because the cost of buying food waste and refining it is low, while edible oil prices were rising.

China's food industry has been hit by a string of food safety scares. On Friday, the administration issued a 2010 plan to ensure food safety, calling on all levels of government to step up inspections at every link in the food production chain, including the edible oil and dairy industries.

China has launched high-profile crackdowns in the past, but product-quality scandals continue to emerge.

In 2008, the nation's dairy sector was rocked by a tainted milk scandal that the government said resulted in the deaths of six babies and sickened 300,000 others.

Reports have said recently that some of the tainted dairy products, which were contaminated with the industrial chemical melamine, had re-emerged on the market. The government has said the problem has been contained.

In 2007, the former head of the nation's food and drug administration Zheng Xiaoyu was executed after being convicted of taking bribes to approve untested medicines. AFP
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-3-23 00:31 | 显示全部楼层
Restaurant head chef talks about drainage oil in China
I am not going to say which city, which restaurant, I don’t want to lose my job. But I want to talk about the current situation of the drainage oil (地沟油). I am working at this sizable restaurant as the head chef, so I know some information about this.
Our restaurant’s waste oil is usually produced in two ways: the used oil after frying many foods and the waste oil from the water after washing dishes and pots.

Used oil is stored in bins, people will pay to collect them, not stored waste oil is dumped into the sewers, and this waste oil is also fished out later. There is a big hotel near my home. Many times at night I saw minivan carrying many barrels, people in the car open up the manhole covers and connect to the hotel kitchen, using a long spoon to pick up the oil floating on the water surface.
To be frank, big restaurants and big hotels are the main places producing drainage oil.
In the city I am in, people already clearly scooped out the big restaurants and hotels’ sewage pathways. Now it was already exposed on CCTV, the relevant departments have been keeping a tight grip, so the cases of fishing sewer waste oil are fewer now, however purchasing used oil is still very common.
Used oil and the floating oil fished up from the sewers are now all called drainage oil. Drainage oil must not be consumed by people. It can only be used as raw materials for producing chemical products. However there is profit in this, the trend is an above average restaurant can produce 100 kg of used oil in a month, each kg sells for over 1 yuan, so the profit is 200-300 yuan a month. Not only this, the people come to fish from the sewers also pay the restaurant; they pay 200-300 a month.
Do not underestimate the sewers, every time they can pick up 10- 20 kg! Therefore, people are in competition for fishing the waste oil. These people must pay the restaurants and hotels money each month. After a deal is formed, hotel security guards only permit these people to fish out waste oil and deny all others. If someone pays a higher price then they will be permitted instead.
In the city where I live, say a medium-sized restaurant produces 100kg a month plus the dumped waste oil being fished out the total drainage oil produced in a month should be around 4,000 kg. Where does it flow to after the drainage oil is collected?
Of course the dinner table!
Now the people who collect drainage oil are not only those workshops that specialize in drainage oil processing, but also including some fast food restaurants. Because drainage oil processing is simple: put it in a huge pot and heat it up, then add some chemicals, the residues and impurities in the waste oil are separated and sink to the bottom of the pot. The upper layer clear oil looks no different than the normal oil if just looking at it. The price for this oil is only 3 yuan per kg, and the normal edible oil costs 9 yuan per kg.
The drainage oil is usually used by fast food restaurants, food stalls, street food stands and including some companies’ in-house cafeterias. Because the cheap price, and it looks clear enough, drainage oil becomes the choice of the evil owners. Actually small food shops’ oil consumption is not small, especially the boiled fish and hotpot etc. using drainage oil saves a lot of money.
However that is not all, medium sized restaurant needs 400kg oil a month, purchasing it from the supermarket can be very costly, so they usually order in bulks to be delivered to them.
There is always loopholes, when each new restaurant opens, there will be grain and oil distributors contacting them. In the end which distributor gets the contract all depends on the price, just like any competition. As for the quality of the oil usually is only determined by human eyes. But the oil delivered in the big white bin does not have any information about the manufacturer, production date and expatriation date. The chefs here do not even know where the oil we use is produced. Say, if the distributor mixes in fake drainage oil, there is really nothing we can do.
We are most afraid of using drainage oil, because if oil producer mixes in water, it would sizzle and making loud noises when heat up. It is easy to determine that, but drainage oil is undetectable.
However the hotels and restaurants have their difficulties too. The profit for selling waste oil each month is not so great; of course profit is still the reason. Also, there are also legitimate factories here specializing in processing waste oil for producing chemical raw materials. These factories come to collect waste oil, not only refuse to pay the restaurant; instead restaurant must pay the factories a fee. Obviously we give something away to them, but still have to pay them? Restaurant manager feels that this is unreasonable. But waste oil must be dealt with, so when people come to pay for them, of course the restaurant is willing. In fact if the legitimate factory comes to collect the waste oil and we don’t have to pay, we would have been willing too.
Among the variety of kitchen supplies oil is the most chaotic and the hardest to regulate. The masses regard food as their heaven, the safety of edible oil is already affecting food industry’s credibility. Everyone should have the mind set of using safe oil, absolutely opposing the evil oil. At the same time issues of recycling waste oil should be addressed so that the evil oil market will decline on its own.

***



























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 楼主| 发表于 2010-3-23 00:33 | 显示全部楼层
说白了,大酒楼大宾馆是地沟油的主要来源
我不说我是哪个城市的,更不说是哪个酒楼的,我不能失业。但我想说一说这个地沟油的现旬,我在大酒楼上班,是这个酒楼的厨师长,所以多少知道些情况。


我们大酒楼产生的废油通常有两种:多次炸食品之后的二手油和洗锅、洗碗碟排放掉的污水废油。

二手油是存在一个桶里的,会有人出钱来收,没存的,排放到下水道,那些污油也有人来捞。我住处的附近就是一家宾馆,夜里好几次看到带着大桶的小型面包车,车上的人将连接宾馆厨房的下水道井盖搬开,用一只长勺从污水表面捞起浮油。


说白了,大酒楼大宾馆是地沟油的主要产地。


我所在城市一些大酒店的污水脉络早被人摸得清清楚楚。现在被央视曝光了,有关部门查得紧,直接捞下水道污油的现象少了,但收购二手油现象仍普遍存在。


二手油和从地沟捞上来的浮油,现在都被称为地沟油。地沟油不能食用,只能做化工产品的原料。但有利润啊,利之所趋,一家较大的酒楼一个月能产生100公斤左右的二手油,每斤一块多,就有两三百收入。不仅如此,来下水道捞污油也要向酒楼交钱,一个月交两三百。


可不要小看这个下水道,每次能捞出一二十公斤油!所以,捞油的人还存在竞争。这些捞油的人每个月都要给酒楼一些钱。谈妥之后,酒楼保安就只允许这个人捞油,其他人被拒之门外。如果另一个人出更高价,就换他去捞。


我所在的城市,按一家中型酒楼一月100公斤左右的二手油产量,加上直接排放而被捞取的污油,一个月产生的地沟油至少有应该有4000公斤。这些地沟油被收集起来后,流到哪里去了呢?


当然是餐桌!


现在收取地沟油的,不只是那些专门从事地沟油加工的作坊,还包括一些快餐店。因为地沟油加工程序简单:放到大锅中加热,再加入某种化学原料,废油中的残渣和杂质就被分离出来,沉淀在锅底。在上层相对清澈的油肉眼看上去与普通油差别不大。这些油的价格每公斤只要3块,而一般的食用油每公斤要9块左右。


往往用地沟油的都是一些快餐店、大排档、小摊,包括一些企业的内部员工食堂。因为价格低,看上去也清澈透明,所以成了一些黑心的店主的选择。小餐饮店用油量其实不小,特别是水煮活鱼、火锅之类,用地沟油能节约不少成本。”



不过也并不完全是,中等酒楼一个月需差不多要用400公斤以上的油,在超市购买桶装的食用油成本很高,所以都固定的供货商送货上门。


但总会有空子,每家酒楼开业前,就有粮油经销商就会主动找上门来。酒楼最终用哪家的油,主要还是依据价格因素,就像竞标一样。至于油的品质,只能凭肉眼判断。可是,送来那些大白桶装的油没有任何有关生产厂家、生产日期、保质期的信息,我们厨师连自己用的油是在哪里生产的都不太清楚。可以说,供货商要是在其中掺假,用地沟油,防也防不住。


我们最怕用到地沟油。如果油商在油中掺水,一下锅就劈劈啪啪地响,容易知道。但要是用了地沟油,根本看不出来。


不过酒店也有苦衷,每个月卖废油的收入并不多。利益当然是原因,另外,我们这里也有正规厂家以废油为化工原料的。这些厂家来收购废油,不仅不用向酒楼交付任何费用,反过来,酒楼却要向厂家支付一笔费用。明明是自己的东西给了人,还得付钱给对方,酒楼经营者觉得这实在不合理。但是废油总要处理,有人找上门来出钱收购,酒楼当然愿意。其实如果正规厂家来收购,酒楼不用交钱的话,我们还是愿意的。”


各种厨房用品中,目前可以说油是最混乱的,也最难监管。民以食为天,食用油的安全已经影响到餐饮业的信誉。大家都应该有用放心油的概念,坚决抵制黑心油。同时废油的出路也应该得到解决,这样黑心油市就自然要萎缩了。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-3-24 08:18 | 显示全部楼层
知名食品专家表示,鉴于现在国内还没有检测地沟油的有效技术,所以我们急需规范厨房垃圾的循环使用,以杜绝用地沟油加工食物。 With the inefficiency of current techniques for detecting and identifying the use of illegal cooking oil in China, there is an urgent need to improve kitchen waste recycling procedures to prevent the continued use of such oil in food production, a leading food expert has said.
武汉工业学院食品科学与工程学院何东平教授正在进行一项研究,上周四他透露,在国内你每吃十顿饭就可能碰到一次“地沟油大餐”。 He Dongping, a professor of food science engineering at Wuhan Polytechnic University (WHPU), revealed last Thursday that one in every 10 meals in the country might have been cooked with dirty oil based on an ongoing study.

这一爆料引起普遍的恐慌。上周四国家食品药品监督管理局对国内餐饮业下达紧急通知,警告他们不要使用地沟油。 The revelation has raised widespread alarm. The State Food and Drug Administration on Thursday issued an emergency notice to restaurants nationwide, warning them against recycling oil.

厨房垃圾经过提炼,最后变成“地沟油”。尽管看起来色泽清亮,但它含有多种有毒物质,其中包括致癌的“黄曲霉素”。 The "illegal cooking oil" is usually made from discarded kitchen waste that has been refined. Although it looks clean and clear, it actually contains toxic substances, including "aflatoxin", which can cause cancer.

他解释说:“国内的地沟油非法提纯产业已十分成熟。地沟油产业已形成一整套的生产程序。” "The country's underground oil refining businesses have grown pretty mature. There is a whole set of procedures for producing illegal cooking oil," He explained.

他说,就目前情况,杜绝使用地沟油应从源头,也就是厨房垃圾抓起。 In the current situation, preventing of the use of illegal cooking oil should start at its source, kitchen waste, He said.

他建议:“首先应通过政府的引导,制定标准,对于厨房垃圾进行回收处理。” "The first step is to ensure an official, standardized collection of kitchen waste," he recommended.

与此同时,巨额利润是导致地沟油屡禁不止的重要原因。 In the interim, the use of illegal cooking oil continues to be sustained by its high profitability.

武汉本地的一项调查显示,几乎没有餐厅愿意雇佣清洁工来处理厨房垃圾。 An investigation in Wuhan showed few restaurants are willing to hire the city's sanitation workers for kitchen waste collection.

上周五,湖北省武汉武昌区的一家饭店老板在接受《中国日报》采访时说,每天至少有50桌左右的客人,厨房垃圾大概有两大桶。 The owner of a restaurant in the Wuchang district of Wuhan, capital of Central China's Hubei province, last Friday told China Daily he serves at least 50 tables a day, which produces two big barrels of kitchen waste.

尽管该业主称厨房垃圾由环卫工人统一运送处理,但武汉城管部门的相关负责人称环卫工人从未运送过这家餐馆的厨房垃圾。 According to the restaurateur, the waste could be collected and recycled by sanitation workers, but an official with the Wuhan urban management bureau told China Daily that sanitation workers never collect waste from restaurants.

上周六,武汉艾瑞生物柴油有限公司负责人曾炜在接受新华社采访时表示,“如果雇佣清洁工人酒店需要支付一定的费用,但如将厨房垃圾卖给私人每年还可以拿到1万元(合1500美元)的利润。 "The restaurants have to pay a certain fee if they hire the city's sanitation workers, whereas selling kitchen waste to private parties can make up to 10,000 yuan ($1,500) every year," Zeng Wei, director of the Wuhan Airui Biodiesel Company, told Xinhua News Agency on Saturday.

曾炜表示,许多餐饮酒店都将餐厨废油的收购权承包给了专人,收购方和餐饮企业间建立比较稳定的购销关系,外人不得插足。 According to Zeng, many restaurants contract out their kitchen waste collection to private parties, a stable set-up in which there is no room for the entrance of an outside party.

他说,每吨食品垃圾经提炼可得到130公斤地沟油。由于其售价仅为普通食用油的一半,国内地沟油每年的总利润可达到15—20亿元。 Refining 1 ton of the waste would produce 130 kg of illegal cooking oil. With its price being half that of ordinary cooking oil, a profit of 1.5 to 2 billion yuan is produced in the entire illegal cooking oil business in the country every year, He said.

“利润率接近百分之两百。如此暴利,地沟油交易火爆便不难理解。” "The profit margin is almost 200 percent. It's easy to understand why the business is so hot."
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